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赤粒艺术:【笔墨‧之外II】

发布时间:2020-05-28
赤粒艺术【笔墨‧之外II】

笔墨‧之外II

赤粒艺术:【笔墨‧之外II】

笔墨‧之外II

赤粒艺术:【笔墨‧之外II】

笔墨‧之外II

赤粒艺术:【笔墨‧之外II】

笔墨‧之外II

赤粒艺术:【笔墨‧之外II】

笔墨‧之外II

赤粒艺术:【笔墨‧之外II】

笔墨‧之外II

赤粒艺术:【笔墨‧之外II】

笔墨‧之外II

赤粒艺术:【笔墨‧之外II】

笔墨‧之外II

赤粒艺术:【笔墨‧之外II】

笔墨‧之外II

赤粒艺术:【笔墨‧之外II】
    展期

    日期:2018-08-25 ~ 2018-09-30

    地点

    大安区大安路一段116巷15号 台北市

    参展艺术家

    周柏翰,林衍馨,颜妤庭,林郁珮,吴承翰,胡在晴

    赤粒艺术:【笔墨‧之外II】 赤粒艺术

    台湾,台北市

      笔墨终结以后的台湾水墨艺术新局
      文/王嘉骥

      2008年,我为台北市立美术馆策划《形.意.质.韵:东亚当代水墨创作邀请展》时,曾经提出当代水墨艺术所面临的「后历史情境」。此一现象,随着台湾在1990年代以后,更彻底的本土化追求,以及台海两岸在政治上更激化的对峙,原本位居中心的中国文化传统逐渐离心化,甚至成为台湾教育亟欲改革的对象。

      在中心与边陲易位后的本土化训练之下,1990年代以后生长的台湾年青世代艺术家,除非极其自觉、有心,且自发地钻研水墨艺术的历史,否则中国固有的传统对他们几乎已经堪称遥远。面对台湾的新现实,新生代不再凭藉中国的历史来印证自己的身分,认同更无需透过其传统才得以确立。

      脱开与中国历史、文化、艺术的承续关係之后,台湾当代的水墨艺术是否还有可能与可为,以及将航向何处?这是一个耐人寻味的问题。新世纪以来,全球化浪潮席捲,影像科技日新月异,网际网络快速地改变了人类的生活、消费,以及认知世界的方式。新生代的艺术家早已远离传统的书写模式。键盘取代书写,毛笔不再必备,甚至是为了艺术才会使用的工具。这样的趋势之下,新生代的水墨创作自然而然地演变为笔墨归于零,笔法归于零的世纪新局。纵使还有追求笔墨或醉心于笔法者,也纯属个人的艺术选择或美学偏好。

      来到今日,再以传统文人菁英标榜的笔墨或笔法,作为检验新生代水墨艺术的範式,恐怕是缘木求鱼,而且失效。即使在作品中看出笔墨或笔法,也未必就具创造性及时代意义。笔墨既已终结,毛笔当然也不再是唯一、必要,而不可或缺的工具选择。解放笔与墨的传统疆界,拓宽纸与绢的固定用法,甚至採用西方或现代工业的材料,譬如以油彩或压克力彩作为颜料等,这些都是现代主义时期衆多艺术家已经思考并採用过的创新手段。以此为基础,今日新生代的水墨创作者可以朝向更多元化的媒介发展。

      长成于新世纪的台湾新生代水墨艺术家,因为处于后历史状态,无论传统或艺术史对他们已经失去羁限的作用,更无家派的束缚。他们不需要争取历史的认可,更没有赓续或是与传统对话的义务。他们的视野回归到最贴近自己身体的眼前,自我的呢喃与日常的细琐成为他们常态的主题。或者,以此作为出发点,尝试针对社会上的一些状况或现象,投射个人的观感。

      虽然身处日常,这些新生代的创作者往往还混杂了许多疏离于现实之外的日梦与幻游景观。当然,也有些创作者沿用传统绘画的母题与图式,毕竟这样的形式手段,在视觉的逻辑上相对安全,也有利于一般的阅读;相对地,若是过于迁就传统的惯性,难免就有偏于保守之嫌,也给人艺术家无力突破的印象。儘管如此,在挪用传统风格的同时,不少创作者似乎也很刻意地营造一种时空跳跃的超现实之感。

      迈入新世纪以来,尤其是近十年的发展,影像科技与网际网络革新的速度尤为剧烈。新生代艺术家啓蒙于数位年代,真实与虚拟混生,无奇不有与无中生有的视觉蒙太奇,也属于他们的当代日常。以刺激消费为导向的各种流行新时尚及次文化才生即逝,新生代人类浸润在这样的视觉文化当中,自然也成为他们艺术创作时的无意识之源。缤纷材质的拼凑交叠,多重时空的错综混搭,酝酿出新的视觉构成,离奇之中不乏许多清新的趣味。

      上个世纪曾经伴随无数少年渡过苦涩青春的日本与美国漫画及动画,来到新世纪以后,更因为结合了数位虚拟媒体的新技术与力量,从平面到立体,进而动态化、高清化、全球化,影响力有增无减,继续陪伴新生代人类一起长大,甚至提供啓蒙之径。漫画与动画的视觉经验内化以后,写入成长的记忆之区,同样成为新生代艺术家存在结构的一部分。

      水墨艺术的历史漫长,累积达千年的笔墨体制为创作者立下了难以超越的障碍,犹如格法的迷宫。现代艺术家即使倾其毕生的洪荒之力,恐怕也难以战胜古人,更何况是历史语境、生活形态、创作条件早已不可同日而语的新生世代。目前看来,后历史现象已成当代现实,传统终结更是大势所趋。旧体制的笔墨障碍解除之后,新生代艺术家顺势来到一片全新的创作处女地。

      在此,他们相对自由,可以在工具、媒材、形式、观念上进行各种可能的演练与部署。看似一望无垠,以天际为限,他们毫无拘限;然而,这样的旷野又何尝不是一处让人举目茫茫的另类迷宫?新生代水墨艺术家能否不迷失方位,建立座标,在行进中发觉方向,开疆闢土,构筑属于他们这一代的艺术田园?此一理想诚然可贵,具体的创新却非容易之事。至于上述关乎历史与传统的种种,新生代此刻也许选择以背相对,但也无需刻意遗忘。毕竟,典型在夙昔;有朝一日,前人的创作经验与美学追求,还是可能为当代所用。

      纵观新世纪台湾水墨艺术的景况,学院已老,家派消亡,传统无以为继,历史宣告终结。在此情境之下,水墨艺术仍有可为与否,但看新生代如何推进!

      In 2008, I curated “Form, Idea, Essence and Rhythm: Contemporary East Asian Ink Painting” for Taipei Fine Arts Museum, during which I proposed that contemporary ink art is faced with a “post-historical condition.” Since the 1990s, there has been a keener pursuit of localization in Taiwan and increasingly radical political confrontation on both sides of the Taiwan Strait. In addition, the once-dominant Chinese cultural tradition has gradually been pulled away from the center, even becoming a target of reform in the educational world of Taiwan.

      In the midst of advocacy for localization following the marginalization of the paradigm, the Chinese tradition seems like something in the distant past to the younger-generation artists in Taiwan born after 1990, with few exceptions who spontaneously and wholeheartedly take the initiative to study the history of ink art. In the face of a new reality in Taiwan, the young stop recognizing themselves as a part of the Chinese history, and consider their identity no longer defined by the tradition.

      Is there any possibility and potential for ink art in contemporary Taiwan to thrive, after breaking away from its Chinese past, be it history, culture or art? And how far can it go? This is an intriguing question. With globalization in full swing by the beginning of the new century, the imaging technology has been developing at a breakneck pace, while the Internet is rapidly changing our ways of living, consuming, and perceiving the world. The younger generation has long forsaken the traditional mode of writing. Since clicking on the keyboard has replaced writing, ink brush is not a necessity anymore but a tool solely for art. Thus, the end of brushwork is deemed inevitable. This trend opens new vistas for the young artists.

      Nowadays, it would be useless and ineffective to evaluate the ink paintings presented by the new generation based on the criteria of brushwork, long cherished by the literati elite in the traditional sense. Even if it is somehow demonstrated in their works, it does not necessarily mean that the artists have managed to infuse it with new meaning, nor the spirit of the times. As the brush and ink have come to an end, the ink brush has ceased to be the irreplaceable, indispensable means of artistic creation. The artist is encouraged to push the boundaries of traditional brush and ink, and experiment on different methods of employing the paper or silk. Western or modern industrial materials have even been adopted, e.g., oil or acrylic paint as pigment. All these ingenious approaches had been considered and put into practice by a great number of modernist artists. This has laid a solid foundation for the ink artists of the new generation to make daring attempts at more diverse media.

      Born in the new century, known for its post-historical state, the young Taiwanese ink artists are no longer bound by the tradition or art history, much less the divisions between various schools. Without the need to find identity in history or continue the dialogue with tradition, they redirect their attention to issues much closer to their physical being. Both muttering and daily triviality have become common themes. Sometimes, they also try to convey their thoughts on the events or phenomena in the society.

      Despite the shared themes of everyday life, the young artists often display a mixture of reality, daydreams and fantasies. Some artists opt for a more visually logical, thus more easily comprehensible, formal approach by utilizing the motifs and schemata of traditional paintings. An obsession to cater to traditional norms, however, would end up appearing too conservative, leaving the impression of a lack of innovative audacity. When adopting the traditional style, quite a few of them seem to deliberately create a surreal feel across time and space.

      After the turn of the century, especially around the recent decade, the imaging technology and Internet have been developing at a phenomenal pace. The young artists are enlightened by the digital era, marked by a fusion of reality and virtuality, and strangely wondrous, fabricated visual montages, which constitute the contemporary everydayness. As the miscellany of consumption-oriented fashions and subcultures sink into oblivion in the blink of an eye, the younger generation is immersed in such a visual culture that has unconsciously inspired their artistic creations. A hybrid panoply of materials spanning time and space culminate in novel visual compositions, lending them a refreshing sense of whimsy and fun.

      In the last century, the Japanese and American comics and animations had kept so many boys and girls company through their bittersweet youth. As the new century has witnessed the birth of the digital virtual media, the robust new technology has transformed the comic and animation pieces from two- to three-dimensional, making them dynamic, high-definition, global, and all the more impactful. They continue accompanying the youngsters on their way to maturity and enlightenment. The visual experiences of viewing comics and animations will be internalized and inscribed on the memory, forming an integral part of the being of the young artists.

      Throughout the long history of ink art, the system of brushwork established for over a thousand years has imposed severe limitations on the painters, trapping them in a dogmatic labyrinth. While the modern artists find themselves unable to break the ancient spell despite lifelong efforts, let alone the younger generation who are immersed in a totally different historical context and lifestyle with unprecedentedly miscellaneous creative resources. Since the post-historical phenomenon has now turned into a contemporary reality, the tradition will reach an end someday, sooner or later. There is a whole new world awaiting the young artists with the breakdown of the old mechanism of brush and ink.

      In this new world, they are relatively free to maneuver and try all possibilities with a kaleidoscopic plethora of tools, media, forms, and concepts. Under the seemingly boundless canopy of the sky, they appear to be all-powerful without any shackle. Will a mesmerizing, uncultivated wilderness like this lead to another maze of endless bewilderment? Can the new generation navigate this labyrinthine odyssey through difficulties without getting lost, and create an artistic homeland at long last? It is an ideal to be exalted, but they need to move mountains to make new ideas come true. As the young might strive to break ties with the history and tradition, I do not see it necessary to forget about the past. The paradigms the predecessors have set cannot be erased. Someday in the future, the young can still benefit from referring to the artistic experiences and aesthetic achievements of old.

      Amid the Taiwanese art world of ink painting in the new century, orthodoxy seems outdated and demarcation of schools has broken down; both the tradition and history fade away. Under these circumstances, are there opportunities lying ahead for ink art to grow? Only the new generation can make it happen. Let’s see.

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